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Effect of freezing parameters (freeze cycle and thaw process) on tissue destruction following renal cryoablation.

Woolley ML, Schulsinger DA, Durand DB, Zeltser IS, Waltzer WC.

Department of Urology, SUNY Stony Brook University Hospital and Medical Center, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8093, USA.
J Endourol 2002 Sep;16(7):519-22

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Renal cryoablation is a successful nephron-sparing treatment alternative for selected patients with small renal tumors. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of the number of freeze cycles (one v two) and the thaw process (active v passive) on renal tissue following cryodestruction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen female mongrel dogs (19.9 +/- 2.1 kg) were randomly divided into four groups and underwent transabdominal laparoscopic access by standard techniques. Tissue freezing was performed using argon gas following interstitial cryoprobe (3 mm) placement into the upper and lower poles of the left kidney. Single active (SA), single passive (SP) double active (DA) or double passive (DP) 15-minute treatment cycle(s) were carried out via the CRYOcare Cryosurgical Unit (Endocare, Irving, CA) on eight kidneys each. An active thaw process with helium gas or a passive thaw process was initiated after each freeze period. The cryoprobe was removed when the temperature reached 0 degrees C. Four weeks following cryosurgery, animals were sacrificed, and the renal tissue was evaluated grossly and histologically. RESULTS: Interstitial cryoprobe temperatures decreased from 31.3 degrees C +/- 1.4 degrees C to -142 degrees C +/- 1.0 degrees C following the 15-minute freeze cycle. The temperature reached 0 degrees C significantly faster following active thaw than with the passive process (2.13 +/- 0.24 min/freeze cycle and 15.18 +/- 2.97 min/freeze cycle, respectively; P < 0.0001). Grossly, each lesion consisted of a central area of necrosis surrounded by a rim of white tissue. On microscopic examination, each lesion consisted of a central area of liquefaction necrosis (LN) surrounded by various degrees of fibrosis and granulation tissue admixed with residual parenchyma. The size of the LN was significantly different in tissues subjected to double and single freeze cycles when compared across both thaw processes (active and passive). There was no significant difference in the overall lesion volume following DA, DP, SA, or SP. CONCLUSIONS: Renal cryodestruction via laparoscopic access achieves complete tissue ablation without complications. The double freeze cycle produced significantly larger areas of LN than the single freeze regardless of the thaw process. The type of thaw process did not affect the amount of tissue damage. Utilizing a double 15-minute freeze cycle with the faster active thaw process will effectively cryoablate renal tissue as well as significantly reduce overall operative time.

PMID: 12396446 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

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